Some want the European Union and its institutions to reform; others like it as it is.
Last year, the EU’s focus was on survival; this year it is on reform. The United Kingdom’s decision to leave the bloc and electoral victories against Eurosceptics -- notably in France -- have given momentum to those hoping to reshape the EU and the euro-area. French President Emmanuel Macron has put forward ambitious ideas, but any euro-area reform needs the blessing of the German government. The advent of right-leaning populist governments in Italy and in Central and Eastern Europe add extra elements of uncertainty. Progress in defence and security may be more rapid. Brussels and London aim to conclude a withdrawal agreement by autumn to allow time for ratification before the United Kingdom leaves in March next year.
- Will Paris and Berlin revive the French-German axis and drive EU reform?
- How divisive is the EU's political fault line emerging across Central Europe?
- How likely is that the United Kingdom leaves the EU without a deal?
- Does the euro-area need another crisis to reform?
Director of European and Eurasian StudiesJohns Hopkins University SAIS
Professor of European Politics and Foreign AffairsKing's College London
Post-Doc fellow at the Department of Cultures, Politics and SocietyUniversity of Turin